Clinical Subjects



Adult treatment

African American cephalometric norms

Alveolar ridge for implants

Anterior facial height

Arch form

Arch length discrepancy

Assessing hand-wrist radiographs

Bicuspid extraction treatment

Bimaxillary protrusion

“Black triangles” / tooth morphology

Blocked out canines

Bolton’s tooth size discrepancy


Class II, Division 1 malocclusion

Class II, Division 2 malocclusion

Class III malocclusion

Closed bite

Congenitally missing premolars

Deep overbite

Dental age vs skeletal age vs chronological age

Dental midline deviations


Early loss of primary teeth

Ectopic canines

Endodontically treated teeth

Excessive spacing

Facial asymmetry

Facial type classification

Frenum management

Functional shift

Growth patterns

“Gummy” smile

Hand wrist radiographs

Impacted canine


Incisor crowding

Lateral open bite

Mandibular asymmetry

Mandibular retrognathia

Maxillary deficiency

Maxillary protrusion

Missing mandibular incisor

Missing molars

Missing teeth

Open bite

Orthodontic relapse

Orthognathic surgery

Over erupted incisors

Over retained primary teeth

Posterior crossbite

Posterior discrepancy

Primary failure of eruption

Retained primary molars

Root resorption

Severe rotations

Space maintenance

Subdivision classification

Surgical procedures

Third molars


Tongue thrust habit

Upper lip to incisor relationship